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a nif:String , nif:Context , nif:RFC5147String ;
nif:isString """the bulk modulus describes the material's response to uniform pressure , and
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Young's modulus describes the material's response to linear strain (like pulling on the ends of a wire), the bulk modulus describes the material's response to uniform pressure , and the shear modulus describes the material's response to shearing strains.
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The shear modulus is concerned with the deformation of a solid when it experiences a force parallel to one of its surfaces while its opposite face experiences an opposing force (such as friction). In the case of an object that's shaped like a rectangular prism, it will deform into a parallelepiped . Anisotropic materials such as wood and paper exhibit differing material response to stress or strain when tested in different directions. In this case, when the deformation is small enough so that the deformation is linear, the elastic moduli, including the shear modulus, will then be a tensor, rather than a single scalar value.
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the Nadal and LePoac (NP) shear modulus model that uses Lindemann theory to determine the temperature dependence and the SCG model for pressure dependence of the shear modulus.
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and Ã‚µ 0 is the shear modulus at 0 K and ambient pressure, ÃŽ¶ is a material parameter, k b is the Boltzmann constant , m is the atomic mass , and f is the Lindemann constant .
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Best Results From Wikipedia Yahoo Answers Youtube From Wikipedia Shear modulus In materials science , shear modulus or modulus of rigidity , denoted by G , or sometimes S or ÃŽŒ , is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain : G \\ \\stackrel{\\mathrm{def}}{=}\\ \\frac {\\tau_{xy}} {\\gamma_{xy}} = \\frac{F/A}{\\Delta x/l} = \\frac{F l}{A \\Delta x} where \\tau_{xy} = F/A \\, = shear stress; F is the force which acts A is the area on which the force acts \\gamma_{xy} = \\Delta x/l = \\tan \\theta \\, = shear strain; \\Delta x is the transverse displacement l is the initial length Shear modulus is usually expressed in gigapascal s (GPa) or thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi). Explanation The shear modulus is one of several quantities for measuring the stiffness of materials. All of them arise in the generalized Hooke's law : Young's modulus describes the material's response to linear strain (like pulling on the ends of a wire), the bulk modulus describes the material's response to uniform pressure , and the shear modulus describes the material's response to shearing strains. The shear modulus is concerned with the deformation of a solid when it experiences a force parallel to one of its surfaces while its opposite face experiences an opposing force (such as friction). In the case of an object that's shaped like a rectangular prism, it will deform into a parallelepiped . Anisotropic materials such as wood and paper exhibit differing material response to stress or strain when tested in different directions. In this case, when the deformation is small enough so that the deformation is linear, the elastic moduli, including the shear modulus, will then be a tensor, rather than a single scalar value. Waves In homogeneous and isotropic solids, there are two kinds of waves, pressure waves and shear waves . The velocity of a shear wave, (v_s) is controlled by the shear modulus, v_s = \\sqrt{\\frac {G} {\\rho} } where G is the shear modulus \\rho is the solid's density . Shear modulus of metals The shear modulus of metals measures the resistance to glide over atomic planes in crystals of the metal. In polycrystalline metals there are also grain boundary factors that have to be considered. In metal alloys, the shear modulus is observed to be higher than in pure metals due to the presence of additional sources of resistance to glide. The shear modulus of metals is usually observed to decrease with increasing temperature. At high pressures, the shear modulus also appears to increase with the applied pressure. Correlations between the melting temperature, vacancy formation energy, and the shear modulus have been observed in many metals. Several models exist that attempt to predict the shear modulus of metals (and possibly that of alloys). Shear modulus models that have been used in plastic flow computations include: the MTS shear modulus model developed by and used in conjunction with the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) plastic flow stress model. the Steinberg-Cochran-Guinan (SCG) shear modulus model developed by and used in conjunction with the Steinberg-Cochran-Guinan-Lund (SCGL) flow stress model. the Nadal and LePoac (NP) shear modulus model that uses Lindemann theory to determine the temperature dependence and the SCG model for pressure dependence of the shear modulus. MTS shear modulus model The MTS shear modulus model has the form: \\mu(T) = \\mu_0 - \\frac{D}{\\exp(T_0/T) - 1} where Ã‚µ 0 is the shear modulus at 0 K, and D and T 0 are material constants. SCG shear modulus model The Steinberg-Cochran-Guinan (SCG) shear modulus model is pressure dependent and has the form \\mu(p,T) = \\mu_0 + \\frac{\\partial \\mu}{\\partial p} \\frac{p}{\\eta^{1/3}} + \\frac{\\partial \\mu}{\\partial T}(T - 300) ; \\quad \\eta := \\rho/\\rho_0 where, Ã‚µ 0 is the shear modulus at the reference state ( T = 300 K, p = 0, ÃŽ· = 1), p is the pressure, and T is the temperature. NP shear modulus model The Nadal-Le Poac (NP) shear modulus model is a modified version of the SCG model. The empirical temperature dependence of the shear modulus in the SCG model is replaced with an equation based on Lindemann melting theory . The NP shear modulus model has the form: \\mu(p,T) = \\frac{1}{\\mathcal{J}(\\hat{T})} \\left[ \\left(\\mu_0 + \\frac{\\partial \\mu}{\\partial p} \\cfrac{p}{\\eta^{1/3}} \\right) (1 - \\hat{T}) + \\frac{\\rho}{Cm}~k_b~T\\right]; \\quad C := \\cfrac{(6\\pi^2)^{2/3}}{3} f^2 where \\mathcal{J}(\\hat{T}) := 1 + \\exp\\left[-\\cfrac{1+1/\\zeta} {1+\\zeta/(1-\\hat{T})}\\right] \\quad \\text{for} \\quad \\hat{T}:=\\frac{T}{T_m}\\in[0,1+\\zeta], and Ã‚µ 0 is the shear modulus at 0 K and ambient pressure, ÃŽ¶ is a material parameter, k b is the Boltzmann constant , m is the atomic mass , and f is the Lindemann constant . Longitudinal wave Longitudinal waves are waves that have the same direction of vibration as their direction of travel, which means that the movement of the medium is in the same direction as or the opposite direction to the motion of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves have been also referred to as compressional waves or compression waves . Non-electromagnetic Longitudinal waves include sound waves (alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material) and seismic P-waves (created by earthquakes and explosions). Sound waves In the case of longitudinal harmonic sound waves, the frequency and wavelength can be described with the formula y(x,t) = y_0 \\sin\\Bigg( \\omega \\left(t-\\frac{x}{c} \\right) \\Bigg) where: y is the displacement of the point on the traveling sound wave; x is the distance the point has traveled from the wave's source; t is the time elapsed; y 0 is the amplitude of the oscillations, c is the speed of the wave; and Ã�â€° is the angular frequency of the wave. The quantity x / c is the time that the wave takes to travel the distance x . The ordinary frequency ( f ) of the wave is given by f = \\frac{\\omega}{2 \\pi}. For sound waves, the amplitude of the wave is the difference between the pressure of the undisturbed air and the maximum pressure caused by the wave. Sound's propagation speed depends on the type, temperature and pressure of the medium through which it propagates. Pressure waves In an elastic medium with rigidity, a harmonic pressure wave oscillation has the form, y(x,t)\\, = y_0 \\cos(k x - \\omega t +\\varphi) where: y 0 is the amplitude of displacement, k is the wavenumber , x is distance along the axis of propagation, Ã�â€° is angular frequency, t is time, and Ã�â€ is phase difference. The force acting to return the medium to its original position is provided by the medium's bulk modulus . Electromagnetic Maxwell's equations lead to the prediction of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum, which are transverse (in that the electric fields and magnetic fields vary perpendicularly to the direction of propagation). However, waves can exist in plasma or confined spaces. These are called plasma wave s and can be longitudinal, transverse, or a mixture of both. Plasma waves can also occur in force-free magnetic fields. In the early development of electromagnetism there was some suggesting that longitudinal electromagnetic waves existed in a vacuum. After Heaviside's attempts to generalize Maxwell's equations, Heaviside came to the conclusion that electromagnetic waves were not to be found as longitudinal waves in \" free space \" or homogeneous media. But it should be stated that Maxwell's equations do lead to the appearance of longitudinal waves under some circumstances in either plasma waves or guided waves. Basically distinct from the \"free-space\" waves, such as those studied by Hertz in his UHF experiments, are Zenneck wave s. The longitudinal mode of a resonant cavity is a particular standing wave pattern formed by waves confined in a cavity. The longitudinal modes correspond to the wavelengths of the wave which are reinforced by constructive interference after many reflections from the cavity's reflecting surfaces. Recently, Haifeng Wang et al. proposed a method that can generate a longitudinal electromagnetic (light) wave in free space, and this wave can propagate without divergence for a few wavelengths. Compressibility In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics , compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress ) change. \\beta=-\\frac{1}{V}\\frac{\\partial V}{\\partial p} where V is volume and p is pressure Note: most textbooks use the notation \\kappa for this quantity The above statement is incomplete, because for any object or system the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is adiabatic or isothermal . Accordingly isothermal compressibility is defined: \\beta_T=-\\frac{1}{V}\\left(\\frac{\\partial V}{\\partial p}\\right)_T where the subscript T indicates that the partial differential is to be taken at constant temperature Adiabatic compressibility is defined: \\beta_S=-\\frac{1}{V}\\left(\\frac{\\partial V}{\\partial p}\\right)_S where S is entropy. For a solid, the distinction between the two is usually negligible. The inverse of the compressibility is called the bulk modulus , often denoted K (sometimes B ). That page also contains some examples for different materials. The compressibility equation relates the isothermal compressibility (and indirectly the pressure) to the structure of the liquid. Thermodynamics The term \"compressibility\" is also used in thermodynamics to describe the deviance in the thermodynamic properties of a real gas from those expected from an ideal gas . The compressibility factor is defined as Z=\\frac{p \\underline{V}}{R T} where p is the pressure of the gas, T is its temperature , and \\underline{V} is its molar volume . In the case of an ideal gas, the compressibility factor Z is equal to unity, and the familiar ideal gas law is recovered: p = {RT\\over{\\underline{V}}} Z can, in general, be either greater or less than unity for a real gas. The deviation from ideal gas behavior tends to become particularly significant (or, equivalently, the compressibility factor strays far from unity) near the critical point , or in the case of high pressure or low temperature. In these cases, a generalized compressibility chart or an alternative equation of state better suited to the problem must be utilized to produce accurate results. A related situation occurs in hypersonic aerodynamics, where dissociation causes an increase in the Ã¢â‚¬Å“notationalÃ¢â‚¬ï¿œ molar volume, because a mole of oxygen, as O 2 , becomes 2 moles of monatomic oxygen and N 2 similarly dissociates to 2N. Since this occurs dynamically as air flows over the aerospace object, it is convenient to alter Z , defined for an initial 30 gram mole of air, rather than track the varying mean molecular weight, millisecond by millisecond. This pressure dependent transition occurs for atmospheric oxygen in the 2500 K to 4000 K temperature range, and in the 5000 K to 10,000 K range for nitrogen. In transition regions, where this pressure dependent dissociation is incomplete, both beta (the volume/pressure differential ratio) and the differential, constant pressure heat capacity will greatly increase. For moderate pressures, above 10,000 K the gas further dissociates into free electrons and ions. Z for the resulting plasma can similarly be computed for a mole of initial air, producing values between 2 and 4 for partially or singly ionized gas. Each dissociation absorbs a great deal of energy in a reversible process and this greatly reduces the thermodynamic temperature of hypersonic gas decelerated near the aerospace object. Ions or free radicals transported to the object surface by diffusion may release this extra (non-thermal) energy if the surface catalyzes the slower recombination process. The isothermal compressibility is related to the isentropic (or adiabatic ) compressibility by the relation, \\beta_S = \\beta_T - \\frac{\\alpha^2 T}{\\rho c_p} via Maxwell's relations . More simply stated, \\frac{\\beta_T}{\\beta_S} = \\gamma where, \\gamma \\! is the heat capacity ratio . See here for a derivation. Earth science Compressibility is used in the Earth science s to quantify the ability of a soil or rock to reduce in volume with applied pressure. This concept is important for specific storage , when estimating groundwater reserves in confined aquifer s. Geologic materials are made up of two portions: solids and voids (or same as porosity ). The void space can be full of liquid or gas. Geologic materials reduces in volume only when the void spaces are reduced, which expel the liquid or gas from the voids. This can happen over a period of time, resulting in settlement . It is an important concept in geotechnical engineering in the design of certain structural foundations. For example, the construction of high-rise structures over underlying layers of highly compressible From Yahoo Answers Question: Take a air filled pipe and piston hydraulic systems and another similar system that is filled with honey. In this case, won't the air filled system, though it has a very low bulk modulus, still be more responsive than the low compressible honey filled system ? Is there an equation that helps decide the trade off between viscosity (tube resistance) and bulk modulus (compressibility) ? Answers: Not that I know of. But, systems are designed to be responsive. So, it is a matter to meet the \"responsiveness\" requirements. It does not require such a fine detail. Wheather oil or air is used is just a matter of convenience. Oil can buildup much higer pressures than air and, therefore, it used to obtain very high forces with relatively compact actuators, which saves space. They are much more compact than electric motors. On the other hand they require more cumbersome installations. Compressed air, on the other hand, is very simple, but it is much more dangerous in case a hose shakes lose or a leak develops. Compressibility is rarely an issue. Tube resistance must be factored in, but it is a minor issue. All the best. . Question: Anyone got an idea where i can get Folding Chairs and Round Tables (like the banquet ones) in bulk? Looking to get anywhere from 100-500 chairs and 10-50 tables. I havent been able to find a website that is selling that. Answers: Have you tried liquidation.com ? Question: I am getting married in a few weeks October 25, 2008...YIKES!!!!...We have no real set colors, the invitations which are gorgeous are Gold with a Black border, the letters are all Black. My maid of honor (she is the only attendant) already has a Black formal dress and a Maroon formal dress, I just don't think it is necessary to have her or me buy another formal dress. OK now to my questions. What colors?? I do know I am going to use gold accents and fall flowers in different colors I am thinking a lot of Maroon mums etc...I had thought about doing overlays over the white tablecloths, but do not know what color(s) ?? I had thought about gold. I also saw an awesome picture where some one used burlap but had satin chair sashes, it actually looked very elegant. The tables are 60\" rounds, so they would take 90\" overlays...they are so expensive, even to rent. I was wondering what you guys thought if I just bunched some fabric up in the middle of the table with the center pieces on it (we using big hurricane globes with a candle and a wreath of flowers around the bottom), to add a splash of color to the the stark white tablecloths?? Or do any of you know where I can buy or rent reasonable priced tablecloth overlays/squares. Also the room is very plain that we are using for our reception site. So any ideas will be welcomed. I had thought about carving out pumpkins and placing a pot of mums down inside of them and setting them on rented pedestals around the room. Thanks Guys! Answers: I actually love the burlap idea. One advantage of the burlap is that you could buy bulk material, then cut squares to fit the top of your tables, then pull the threads on the sides to create frayed edges. (If they are just on top of the tables, it's much less material than if it drapes over the sides.) No need to rent overlays, and no need to hem homemade cloths. And if you worked some wheat stalks into the centerpiece, that would really tie in well with the fall/burlap. You could work the satin in with fall colored napkins, assuming that doesn't add too much to the cost. I'd ask your moh to go with the maroon dress. Your pumpkin idea is also nice. You could add some other decorative gourds and apples on long platters, too. If you can find a few tall planters, (currently on deep discount because summer is over) you could fill them with branches of autumn leaves to make a large impact. It sounds just gorgeous, and I hope it's fun. Question: I want to order some tablecloths in bulk for our church's tables (And I'm ASSUMING they are 60\" because they can seat 6 - 8 people comfortably.) and I need to know what size TABLE CLOTH to get. Would I need to look for a table cloth measuring 60\" or would I need one bigger? I want it to hang about a foot and half to 2 feet below the top of the table. (I just want the somewhat see through or clear disposable/plastic ones.) Also, if anyone has any ideas or tips on where I can purchase some disposable table clothes in BULK... ONLINE.. let me know! Thanks! Answers: If people are going to be sitting at these tables eating you do not want the overhang to be that long. 24\" is way to long. try link below to Oriental trading co. From Youtube Gravity Table Separator KPS by JK Machinery : Gravity Table Separator JK Machinery KPS 2300 Gravity table separators KPS are used for sorting and cleaning of bulk materials of the same size of particles with different specific weight. They are used when the screen and air cleaning is not sufficient and high purity of the final product is required. We will prepare business proposal for you. Contact: JK Machinery, sro Pod Peka kou 107/1, 147 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic Phone. +420 222 362 620, FAX: +420 234 073 323 e-mail: info@jk-machinery.com www.jk-machinery.com Deutsch: Gewichtausleser KPS 2300 JK Machinery Espa ol: Mesa Densim trica KPS 2300 JK Machinery Soft Drinks And there Dangers! Bypass starting 13th October 2008 for 1 week, or for good hopefully, Feel free to upload and post on your channel : Boycott all soft drinks 13th October 2008 for a week, and hopefully will even up giving them up for good A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar or corn syrup in taste, but usually has less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, in general, referred to as artificial sweeteners. An important class of sugar substitutes are known as high-intensity sweeteners. These are compounds with sweetness that is many times that of sucrose, common table sugar. As a result, much less sweetener is required, and energy contribution often negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by these compounds (the \"sweetness profile\") is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are often used in complex mixtures that achieve the most natural sweet sensation. If the sucrose (or other sugar) replaced has contributed to the texture of the product, then a bulking agent is often also needed. This may be seen in soft drinks labeled as \"diet\" or \"light,\" which contain artificial sweeteners and often have notably different mouthfeel, or in table sugar replacements that mix maltodextrins with an intense sweetener to achieve satisfactory texture sensation. In the United States, five intensely-sweet sugar substitutes have been approved for use. They are saccharin, aspartame, sucralose, neotame, and acesulfame potassium.
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Longitudinal wave Longitudinal waves are waves that have the same direction of vibration as their direction of travel, which means that the movement of the medium is in the same direction as or the opposite direction to the motion of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves have been also referred to as compressional waves or compression waves . Non-electromagnetic Longitudinal waves include sound waves (alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material) and seismic P-waves (created by earthquakes and explosions). Sound waves In the case of longitudinal harmonic sound waves, the frequency and wavelength can be described with the formula y(x,t) = y_0 \\sin\\Bigg( \\omega \\left(t-\\frac{x}{c} \\right) \\Bigg) where: y is the displacement of the point on the traveling sound wave; x is the distance the point has traveled from the wave's source; t is the time elapsed; y 0 is the amplitude of the oscillations, c is the speed of the wave; and Ã�â€° is the angular frequency of the wave. The quantity x / c is the time that the wave takes to travel the distance x . The ordinary frequency ( f ) of the wave is given by f = \\frac{\\omega}{2 \\pi}. For sound waves, the amplitude of the wave is the difference between the pressure of the undisturbed air and the maximum pressure caused by the wave. Sound's propagation speed depends on the type, temperature and pressure of the medium through which it propagates. Pressure waves In an elastic medium with rigidity, a harmonic pressure wave oscillation has the form, y(x,t)\\, = y_0 \\cos(k x - \\omega t +\\varphi) where: y 0 is the amplitude of displacement, k is the wavenumber , x is distance along the axis of propagation, Ã�â€° is angular frequency, t is time, and Ã�â€ is phase difference. The force acting to return the medium to its original position is provided by the medium's bulk modulus . Electromagnetic Maxwell's equations lead to the prediction of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum, which are transverse (in that the electric fields and magnetic fields vary perpendicularly to the direction of propagation). However, waves can exist in plasma or confined spaces. These are called plasma wave s and can be longitudinal, transverse, or a mixture of both. Plasma waves can also occur in force-free magnetic fields. In the early development of electromagnetism there was some suggesting that longitudinal electromagnetic waves existed in a vacuum. After Heaviside's attempts to generalize Maxwell's equations, Heaviside came to the conclusion that electromagnetic waves were not to be found as longitudinal waves in \" free space \" or homogeneous media. But it should be stated that Maxwell's equations do lead to the appearance of longitudinal waves under some circumstances in either plasma waves or guided waves. Basically distinct from the \"free-space\" waves, such as those studied by Hertz in his UHF experiments, are Zenneck wave s. The longitudinal mode of a resonant cavity is a particular standing wave pattern formed by waves confined in a cavity. The longitudinal modes correspond to the wavelengths of the wave which are reinforced by constructive interference after many reflections from the cavity's reflecting surfaces. Recently, Haifeng Wang et al. proposed a method that can generate a longitudinal electromagnetic (light) wave in free space, and this wave can propagate without divergence for a few wavelengths.
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Maxwell's equations lead to the prediction of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum, which are transverse (in that the electric fields and magnetic fields vary perpendicularly to the direction of propagation). However, waves can exist in plasma or confined spaces. These are called plasma wave s and can be longitudinal, transverse, or a mixture of both. Plasma waves can also occur in force-free magnetic fields.
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In the early development of electromagnetism there was some suggesting that longitudinal electromagnetic waves existed in a vacuum. After Heaviside's attempts to generalize Maxwell's equations, Heaviside came to the conclusion that electromagnetic waves were not to be found as longitudinal waves in \" free space \" or homogeneous media. But it should be stated that Maxwell's equations do lead to the appearance of longitudinal waves under some circumstances in either plasma waves or guided waves. Basically distinct from the \"free-space\" waves, such as those studied by Hertz in his UHF experiments, are Zenneck wave s. The longitudinal mode of a resonant cavity is a particular standing wave pattern formed by waves confined in a cavity. The longitudinal modes correspond to the wavelengths of the wave which are reinforced by constructive interference after many reflections from the cavity's reflecting surfaces. Recently, Haifeng Wang et al. proposed a method that can generate a longitudinal electromagnetic (light) wave in free space, and this wave can propagate without divergence for a few wavelengths.
[...]
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics , compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress ) change.
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Compressibility In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics , compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress ) change. \\beta=-\\frac{1}{V}\\frac{\\partial V}{\\partial p} where V is volume and p is pressure Note: most textbooks use the notation \\kappa for this quantity The above statement is incomplete, because for any object or system the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is adiabatic or isothermal . Accordingly isothermal compressibility is defined: \\beta_T=-\\frac{1}{V}\\left(\\frac{\\partial V}{\\partial p}\\right)_T where the subscript T indicates that the partial differential is to be taken at constant temperature Adiabatic compressibility is defined: \\beta_S=-\\frac{1}{V}\\left(\\frac{\\partial V}{\\partial p}\\right)_S where S is entropy. For a solid, the distinction between the two is usually negligible. The inverse of the compressibility is called the bulk modulus , often denoted K (sometimes B ). That page also contains some examples for different materials. The compressibility equation relates the isothermal compressibility (and indirectly the pressure) to the structure of the liquid. Thermodynamics The term \"compressibility\" is also used in thermodynamics to describe the deviance in the thermodynamic properties of a real gas from those expected from an ideal gas . The compressibility factor is defined as Z=\\frac{p \\underline{V}}{R T} where p is the pressure of the gas, T is its temperature , and \\underline{V} is its molar volume . In the case of an ideal gas, the compressibility factor Z is equal to unity, and the familiar ideal gas law is recovered: p = {RT\\over{\\underline{V}}} Z can, in general, be either greater or less than unity for a real gas. The deviation from ideal gas behavior tends to become particularly significant (or, equivalently, the compressibility factor strays far from unity) near the critical point , or in the case of high pressure or low temperature. In these cases, a generalized compressibility chart or an alternative equation of state better suited to the problem must be utilized to produce accurate results. A related situation occurs in hypersonic aerodynamics, where dissociation causes an increase in the Ã¢â‚¬Å“notationalÃ¢â‚¬ï¿œ molar volume, because a mole of oxygen, as O 2 , becomes 2 moles of monatomic oxygen and N 2 similarly dissociates to 2N. Since this occurs dynamically as air flows over the aerospace object, it is convenient to alter Z , defined for an initial 30 gram mole of air, rather than track the varying mean molecular weight, millisecond by millisecond. This pressure dependent transition occurs for atmospheric oxygen in the 2500 K to 4000 K temperature range, and in the 5000 K to 10,000 K range for nitrogen. In transition regions, where this pressure dependent dissociation is incomplete, both beta (the volume/pressure differential ratio) and the differential, constant pressure heat capacity will greatly increase. For moderate pressures, above 10,000 K the gas further dissociates into free electrons and ions. Z for the resulting plasma can similarly be computed for a mole of initial air, producing values between 2 and 4 for partially or singly ionized gas. Each dissociation absorbs a great deal of energy in a reversible process and this greatly reduces the thermodynamic temperature of hypersonic gas decelerated near the aerospace object. Ions or free radicals transported to the object surface by diffusion may release this extra (non-thermal) energy if the surface catalyzes the slower recombination process. The isothermal compressibility is related to the isentropic (or adiabatic ) compressibility by the relation, \\beta_S = \\beta_T - \\frac{\\alpha^2 T}{\\rho c_p} via Maxwell's relations . More simply stated, \\frac{\\beta_T}{\\beta_S} = \\gamma where, \\gamma \\! is the heat capacity ratio . See here for a derivation. Earth science Compressibility is used in the Earth science s to quantify the ability of a soil or rock to reduce in volume with applied pressure. This concept is important for specific storage , when estimating groundwater reserves in confined aquifer s. Geologic materials are made up of two portions: solids and voids (or same as porosity ). The void space can be full of liquid or gas. Geologic materials reduces in volume only when the void spaces are reduced, which expel the liquid or gas from the voids. This can happen over a period of time, resulting in settlement . It is an important concept in geotechnical engineering in the design of certain structural foundations. For example, the construction of high-rise structures over underlying layers of highly compressible From Yahoo Answers Question: Take a air filled pipe and piston hydraulic systems and another similar system that is filled with honey. In this case, won't the air filled system, though it has a very low bulk modulus, still be more responsive than the low compressible honey filled system ? Is there an equation that helps decide the trade off between viscosity (tube resistance) and bulk modulus (compressibility) ? Answers: Not that I know of. But, systems are designed to be responsive. So, it is a matter to meet the \"responsiveness\" requirements. It does not require such a fine detail. Wheather oil or air is used is just a matter of convenience. Oil can buildup much higer pressures than air and, therefore, it used to obtain very high forces with relatively compact actuators, which saves space. They are much more compact than electric motors. On the other hand they require more cumbersome installations. Compressed air, on the other hand, is very simple, but it is much more dangerous in case a hose shakes lose or a leak develops. Compressibility is rarely an issue. Tube resistance must be factored in, but it is a minor issue. All the best. . Question: Anyone got an idea where i can get Folding Chairs and Round Tables (like the banquet ones) in bulk? Looking to get anywhere from 100-500 chairs and 10-50 tables. I havent been able to find a website that is selling that. Answers: Have you tried liquidation.com ? Question: I am getting married in a few weeks October 25, 2008...YIKES!!!!...We have no real set colors, the invitations which are gorgeous are Gold with a Black border, the letters are all Black. My maid of honor (she is the only attendant) already has a Black formal dress and a Maroon formal dress, I just don't think it is necessary to have her or me buy another formal dress. OK now to my questions. What colors?? I do know I am going to use gold accents and fall flowers in different colors I am thinking a lot of Maroon mums etc...I had thought about doing overlays over the white tablecloths, but do not know what color(s) ?? I had thought about gold. I also saw an awesome picture where some one used burlap but had satin chair sashes, it actually looked very elegant. The tables are 60\" rounds, so they would take 90\" overlays...they are so expensive, even to rent. I was wondering what you guys thought if I just bunched some fabric up in the middle of the table with the center pieces on it (we using big hurricane globes with a candle and a wreath of flowers around the bottom), to add a splash of color to the the stark white tablecloths?? Or do any of you know where I can buy or rent reasonable priced tablecloth overlays/squares. Also the room is very plain that we are using for our reception site. So any ideas will be welcomed. I had thought about carving out pumpkins and placing a pot of mums down inside of them and setting them on rented pedestals around the room. Thanks Guys! Answers: I actually love the burlap idea. One advantage of the burlap is that you could buy bulk material, then cut squares to fit the top of your tables, then pull the threads on the sides to create frayed edges. (If they are just on top of the tables, it's much less material than if it drapes over the sides.) No need to rent overlays, and no need to hem homemade cloths. And if you worked some wheat stalks into the centerpiece, that would really tie in well with the fall/burlap. You could work the satin in with fall colored napkins, assuming that doesn't add too much to the cost. I'd ask your moh to go with the maroon dress. Your pumpkin idea is also nice. You could add some other decorative gourds and apples on long platters, too. If you can find a few tall planters, (currently on deep discount because summer is over) you could fill them with branches of autumn leaves to make a large impact. It sounds just gorgeous, and I hope it's fun. Question: I want to order some tablecloths in bulk for our church's tables (And I'm ASSUMING they are 60\" because they can seat 6 - 8 people comfortably.) and I need to know what size TABLE CLOTH to get. Would I need to look for a table cloth measuring 60\" or would I need one bigger? I want it to hang about a foot and half to 2 feet below the top of the table. (I just want the somewhat see through or clear disposable/plastic ones.) Also, if anyone has any ideas or tips on where I can purchase some disposable table clothes in BULK... ONLINE.. let me know! Thanks! Answers: If people are going to be sitting at these tables eating you do not want the overhang to be that long. 24\" is way to long. try link below to Oriental trading co. From Youtube Gravity Table Separator KPS by JK Machinery : Gravity Table Separator JK Machinery KPS 2300 Gravity table separators KPS are used for sorting and cleaning of bulk materials of the same size of particles with different specific weight. They are used when the screen and air cleaning is not sufficient and high purity of the final product is required. We will prepare business proposal for you. Contact: JK Machinery, sro Pod Peka kou 107/1, 147 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic Phone. +420 222 362 620, FAX: +420 234 073 323 e-mail: info@jk-machinery.com www.jk-machinery.com Deutsch: Gewichtausleser KPS 2300 JK Machinery Espa ol: Mesa Densim trica KPS 2300 JK Machinery Soft Drinks And there Dangers! Bypass starting 13th October 2008 for 1 week, or for good hopefully, Feel free to upload and post on your channel : Boycott all soft drinks 13th October 2008 for a week, and hopefully will even up giving them up for good A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar or corn syrup in taste, but usually has less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, in general, referred to as artificial sweeteners. An important class of sugar substitutes are known as high-intensity sweeteners. These are compounds with sweetness that is many times that of sucrose, common table sugar. As a result, much less sweetener is required, and energy contribution often negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by these compounds (the \"sweetness profile\") is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are often used in complex mixtures that achieve the most natural sweet sensation. If the sucrose (or other sugar) replaced has contributed to the texture of the product, then a bulking agent is often also needed. This may be seen in soft drinks labeled as \"diet\" or \"light,\" which contain artificial sweeteners and often have notably different mouthfeel, or in table sugar replacements that mix maltodextrins with an intense sweetener to achieve satisfactory texture sensation. In the United States, five intensely-sweet sugar substitutes have been approved for use. They are saccharin, aspartame, sucralose, neotame, and acesulfame potassium.
[...]
The compressibility equation relates the isothermal compressibility (and indirectly the pressure) to the structure of the liquid.
[...]
The deviation from ideal gas behavior tends to become particularly significant (or, equivalently, the compressibility factor strays far from unity) near the critical point , or in the case of high pressure or low temperature. In these cases, a generalized compressibility chart or an alternative equation of state better suited to the problem must be utilized to produce accurate results.
[...]
\\gamma \\! is the heat capacity ratio . See here for a derivation.
[...]
Compressibility is used in the Earth science s to quantify the ability of a soil or rock to reduce in volume with applied pressure. This concept is important for specific storage , when estimating groundwater reserves in confined aquifer s. Geologic materials are made up of two portions: solids and voids (or same as porosity ). The void space can be full of liquid or gas. Geologic materials reduces in volume only when the void spaces are reduced, which expel the liquid or gas from the voids. This can happen over a period of time, resulting in settlement .
[...]
Young's modulus describes the material's response to linear strain (like pulling on the ends of a wire),"""^^xsd:string;
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